Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and disease of the eye and visual system.

Medical ophthalmologists have varying roles around the country. Once they have successfully completed the medical ophthalmology curriculum, they can take up a post as a community ophthalmic physician, a hospital based ophthalmic physician or set up private practice as an independent practitioner. They can also have public health roles such as running a diabetic screening programme and/or extending eye care to the community.

Surgical ophthalmology refers to ophthalmologists who perform microsurgical intraocular operations such as cataract extraction surgery or retinal detachment repair surgery. Surgical ophthalmologists nearly all perform cataract surgery as well as specialize in one of eleven different surgical subspecialties.

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